Sunday, May 24, 2020
Capitalism is an economic system in a society in which private owners control industry and trade within a country, rather than the state. Both Karl Marx and Max Weber, have written theories on how this system develops in countries and creates a nation state that is characterised by production and wealth. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s theory takes more of a top-down approach, suggesting that people have little power in how their society is run. On the other hand, WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom-up approach demonstrates how people have the ability to initiate capitalism and change their society. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of historical materialism is based on a 5-stage system inevitable of any society, WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism states that it was a much smaller group within a feudal society whose religiosity inadvertently kick-started capitalism. Although both these theories look at how capitalism develops within a society, MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s macro-scale theory is more appl icable to every society, unlike WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s micro-scale approach that focuses on one group within society and their Ã¢â¬Ëspirit of capitalismÃ¢â¬â¢. Naturally, the theories vary due to the time of writing and the economic or political situation. Marx wrote of historical materialism during a German economic crisis, whereas Weber wrote his theory a generation after, seeing the economy develop and stabilise. This impacted the message they were portraying and influenced two opposing theories. Based on HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of dialectics shaping society andShow MoreRelatedWhy Has Marxism Been Neglected For International Relations?977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof the major reasons why Marxism has generally been neglected in International Relations is due to the scarcity of Marxist writing that is specifically focused on this subject. However, it can be argued that due to this paucity of material, Marxist theory has nothing of substantial value to offer with regards to international relations. Non- Marxists argue that the concepts in MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of capitalist production; class, labor, exchange value, surplus value, are not relevant to international relationsRead MoreWhy Marx s Social Theory Place So Much Emphasis On Class Conflict And The Economic Aspects Of Society? Essay1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdoes Marx s social theory place so much emphasis on class conflict and the economic aspects of society? Karl Marx is one of the most influential and revolutionary philosopher, economist and sociologist of the 19th century. His thoughts not only shaped our understandings of the capitalistic world but also created a new system of social organization, communism. His ideology also defined the key political figures of the cold war period such as Stalin, Mao and Castro. Without Marx, theRead MoreWhy Marx s Social Theory Place So Much Emphasis On Class Conflict And The Economic Aspects Of Society?1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhy does MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s social theory place so much emphasis on class conflict and the economic aspects of society? Introduction There are many reasons why MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s social theory places so much emphasis on class conflict and the economic aspects of society. Marx created his theory during a period of time where there was a large level of social change which led to modifications in the ways in which people worked (Morrison, 2012). This social change impacted his sociological thinking, encouraging him to exploreRead MoreThe Marx And Marx s Views On History And Society, By Robert C. Tucker Essay1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Marx-Engels Reader By Robert C. Tucker is an anthology containing essential writings of German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Major writing selections are to understand Marx perspective about history and society, such as The German Ideology. Marx introduces his historical materialism philosophy in the German Ideology: Part 1 of this book, where he proposes communism. Although I agree with a few points Marx gives, I can not accept his overall conclusion that communism is the onlyRead MoreHistorical And Dialectical Materialist Approaches2392 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesmethods of social analysis in the Marxist tradition, how Marxist thinkers after Marx envision the practice of properly analyzing societies and their conceptions of historical and/or dialectical materialism having to do with their visions of the social sciences and humanities. Also, it talks about how their differences of varieties of Marxist materialism make up a given society. Lastly, this paper discusses how historical and dialectical materialist approaches are argued for and justified through theRead MoreThe Bankruptcy Of Marxist Ideology : The Dilution And Variability Essay1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTopic 4: The Bankruptcy of Marxist Ideology: The Dilution and Variability of Marxist and Neo-Marxist Theory in the Post-WWI Era Introduction: This economic study will define the dilution and variability of Marxist and Neo-Marxist Theory in the post-WWII era. The slow dissolution of Marxist theory as as a 19th century economic concept defines the rise of capitalism and the neoliberal ideology that has permeated the latter half of the 20th century. The fall of communism in the late 1980s revealsRead MoreSociological Materialism Vs Economic Determinism1775 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages(Word Count: 1,779) Perceptions and Reality: Historical Materialism Versus Economic Determinism While MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s economic determinism is definitely a component of his theory of historical materialism, the two are by no means interchangeable. Historical materialism does not place value upon the truth of the status of society; all weight is born on how the material base of society is perceived by its inhabitants and how those perceptions lead the people within society to act accordingly in their politicalRead MoreThe As A Science For Emancipation871 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe many contributions attributed directly to critical synthesis in order to unravel certain theoretical and conceptual nodes. More than 150 years have elapsed since Marx and Engels laid the groundwork for the materialistic theory as a science for emancipation. The reception granted to this theory was very powerful: Marxist materialism was erected as a State scientific doctrine within the Soviet bloc; it was the theoretical basis for several popular uprisings and revolutionary movements; it was theRead MoreKar l Marx s Theories Of History And The Theory Of Human Nature Essay1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKarl Marx was a nineteenth century philosopher, born in Trier, Prussia (Germany) in 1818 to a middle class family and later died in 1883. Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophies on society, politics and economics is collectively understood as Marxism. He was a materialist and an atheist who had a profound impact on the world of intellectual thought. This paper will aim to discuss and determine with reference to MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s deterministic theory of history and the theory of human nature, if human beings are essentiallyRead MoreKarl Marx s Influence On Society1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKarl Marx may be regarded as one of the most influential thinkers and his views on how society functions have shaped the development of socialist and economic theories. Political philosophers have developed a variety of enlightened ideologies depicting how governments and societies are organized over the course of histo ry. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s influence by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel would lead to MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s view of history known as historical materialism, Ã¢â¬Å"Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
ANIMAL FARM ESSAY Ã¢â¬Å"The tragic consequences of the rebellion on Animal Farm could have been preventedÃ¢â¬ What did go wrong on Animal Farm? In George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬ËAnimal FarmÃ¢â¬â¢, many things went wrong. Many agree that the consequences depicted in the book could have been avoided, but what really caused these tragic happenings? Did these consequences occur solely because of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s dictatorship, or did the animals willingness to cooperate also contribute in the downfall of Animal Farm? Napoleon was one of the main instigators of Animal FarmÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall. He was portrayed as a heartless and selfish dictator, who terrorized the other animals, and whom was willing toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Milk and apples contain substance absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brain works. The whole management and organization of this farm depended on us. Day and night we are watching over our well fare. It is for your sake that we drink the milk and eat these apples. Do you know what happens of we pigs failed in our duty? Jones would come back!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¨Ã¢â¬ ¨Napoleon, along with many other crimes, also severely abused his power being the leader of the animals. He never raised a working hand, but instead just stayed inside and gave out instructions. Ã¢â¬Å"The pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the others.Ã¢â¬ (page 35) This is also the case with the other pigs, as they believed themselves to be superior to the other animals. Another example of how he abused his authority is how he changed SnowballÃ¢â¬â¢s image from a hero into an enemy: Ã¢â¬Å"Napoleon decreed that there should be a full investigation into SnowballÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. With his dogs in attendance he set out and made a careful tour of inspection of the farm buildings the other animals following at a respectful distanceÃ¢â¬ (Page 78). He twisted the truth using his power, so that Snowball was made in to the scapegoat for everything which went wrong on Animal Farm. Napoleon also terrorised the other animals into confessing to crimes that they did notShow MoreRelatedTheme of Fear in George Orwells Novels Essay1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFear within the ignorant animals of Animal Farm and defeated humans of 1984 exist to uphold each novelÃ¢â¬â¢s totalitarian government. Each of these George Orwell novels delve into the power and manipulation of an absolute dictatorship. Napoleon in Animal Farm and Big Brother in 1984 both claim the newly established system of authority is of superior quality than the preceding regime. Apprehension is due to both fictional and realistic threats, twisted for the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s power-hungry use. Feelings ofRead MoreThe Cold War And The Soviet Union s Sphere Of Influence1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfoolish belief in the purity of his political institution s ideals. The warning in Animal Farm is clear: regardless of their ideological background, po litical figureheads have the capacity and tendency to abuse their power. The humans in George Orwell s fable practice capitalism. Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, is described as an abusive drunk, whose inability to remember to feed his animals sparks their rebellion. Jones ineptness as a caregiver and leader result in his eventual overthrow fromRead MoreEssay Power and Corruption in Macbeth by William Shakespeare3354 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesunclear who the real victim is, does power make a human do bad things or does a human do bad things with power? Both are true, many tragic stories begin with a man trying to gain power with good or bad intentions; either way, it goes downhill. Because of its tragic outcomes, power is a very prominent theme in literature, specifically warning people of the consequences of power. Many authors discuss how power influences people. Throughout every time period, there is some mention of the danger and corruptionRead MoreThe Bible Tell Us And The Be ginning Of The World2583 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesuse the definition of God and Adam contained in the Bible, Paradise lost by John Milton, Dante s inferno, by Dante Alighieri and Dr. Faustus, by Christopher Marlowe. As such, God is the ultimate spirit hovering over mankind and the waters, skies, animals and all that is created on earth from the beginning of time, Actually, God is the creator of the universe, and everything within the universe, such as, matter, energy, space, and time, along with the first highest order of the nine-fold celestialRead MorePrejudice Essay : The Last Of The Mohicans 2567 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageswritten in 1826, James Fennimore Cooper illustrates events, proving prejudice, of the 1757 French and Indian War. There are various occasions in which parties of diverse races and nationalities are brought together, habitually with undesirable consequences. The white manÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasion on the Indians was a terrible one, as shown by MaguaÃ¢â¬â¢s troubles with the fire-water (alcohol), and ChingachgookÃ¢â¬â¢s cry that the Mohican tribe was practically destroyed by alcohol. Ã¢â¬Å"Then his Canada fathers came into theRead More Population: The Growing Problem Essay3830 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesnever, practically or mathematically, keep up with their own numbers. The food, he believed, would eventually run out once a certain critical mass of humans is reached. Malthus predictions and preaching about famine were a bit of foreshadowing of the tragic Irish Famine in the 1840s. When failure of the potato crop occurred for several successive years, this produced a devastating famine. Between 1841 and 1851, Irelands population fell from 8.2 million to 6.6 million through starvation [and] diseaseRead Moretheme of alienation n no where man by kamala markandeya23279 Words Ã |Ã 94 Pagesshare in AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt and punishment; Creon refuses to punish her as he considers her temporarily insane. Tiresias (or Teiresias) The blind prophet of Thebes, who also appears in SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ Oedipus Rex. He comes to warn Creon that dire consequences will follow if he stands by his decision to leave PolynicesÃ¢â¬â¢ body unburied. Eurydice The wife of Creon. She appears only once in the play, when she hears the news of her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s (HaemonÃ¢â¬â¢s) The watchman Comes to inform death. She commits suicideRead MoreBible 104 Worldview Essay6535 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesbook records DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s wars of conquest including the capture of Jerusalem and the relocation of the ark of the covenant to the City of David (6:1Ã¢â¬â19). But the author also records DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s failures: his adultery with Bathsheba (11:1Ã¢â¬â26), AbsalomÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion (15:1Ã¢â¬â18:30), ShebaÃ¢â¬â¢s revolt (20:1Ã¢â¬â26), and the disastrous census (24:1Ã¢â¬â25). Like all the prophetic writers, the author presents a portrait of his historical figures from the perspective of their faithfulness to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s covenant. Key Facts Author:Read MoreSAT Top 30 Essay Evidence18536 Words Ã |Ã 75 Pagesenvisioned himself taking up the aging GuthrieÃ¢â¬â¢s mantle. Dylan was coming of age in the 1960s in America, a time of simmering social unrest and approaching change; race- and gender-based oppression were coming under the microscope and youthful rebellion was on the rise. His reputation at the time was built primary on the relevance of his Ã¢â¬Å"protestÃ¢â¬ songs P a g e | 12 such as Ã¢â¬Å"BlowinÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Wind,Ã¢â¬ which appealed to white and black listeners alike. Such songs provided a bridge for variousRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words Ã |Ã 518 PagesLÃ ¹Ã¯â¬ ¥a Ã¡ » lÃ «Ã¯â¬ § Do the work: KÃ Ã nyÃ¡ »â¹ jee Let us go: ... Ã ² wÃ ¨e nalue Ã¡ » ¥nÃ ²Ã¯â¬ ¥ wÃ ¨e fÃ¡ » ¥ yÃ ... and then he got home and found it this this (thing) this person this place, here this way oh! (surprise) answer to a call, e.g. yes; a low murmuring or exclamation over tragic news or surprise Aba: ÃâÃ¯â¬Å¾bÃ ¬Ã¯â¬ ¬Ã gÃ ¨lÃ ¬ bÃ ¬ nÃ¢â¬â¢Ãâ¬ba Ã¡ »Å'bÃ¡ »â¹ageli lives in Aba flatness; lying flat on the back: Ã¡ »Å' tÃ ²Ã¯â¬ ¥gbÃ ²Ã¯â¬ ¥lÃ ¹Ã¯â¬ ¥ Ã ba He lay flat lie flat on the back: ÃâÃ¯â¬Å¾fÃ ´Ã¯â¬ ¨ sÃ ¬Ã¯â¬ ¬ mÃ ¹ chÃ lÃ¡ » ¥ Ã ba Ã¡ »Å'fÃ¡ » asked me to lie flat on my back sleep on the back Idiomatic greeting and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Imagine a young girl of twelve marrying a man of forty whom she has never seen before and being forced to produce children until her body is physically unable to perform a safe pregnancy. Imagine the girl being brainwashed and beaten for contradicting with a belief held by another man and forced to stay in her community for her entire life without knowing anything of the outside world. This scary world exists not just in imagination, but in the form of marriage known as polygamy. We will write a custom essay sample on Polygamy and Children or any similar topic only for you Order Now Found in almost every country, including the United States but prevalently in Islamic socitey, the practice is considered a right to a select few and a bane to the majority of others. Polygamy is a way of life that should not be allowed in society due to the fact that it creates male-dominated marriages, forces women into subordinate roles, and produces unworkable families full of strife, abuse and incest. Polygamy is a form of marriage in which a person has more than one spouse at a time; it most often occurs in the form of polygyny, when a man has multiple wives. Although the practice has been illegal in the United States for over one hundred years, it is estimated that over 30,000 citizens are involved in plural marriages. Although marriage is considered to be the mutual forming of a bond between a couple, in many polygamous marriages women are forced into the role of wife. They have no choice but to become subservient to their husband. From an early age they are taught of male dominance and are brainwashed by their culture and religion to refuse to the polygamy practice. Practice of polygamy in religion Polygamy is a very ancient practice found in many human societies. The Bible did not condemn polygamy. To the contrary, the Old Testament and Rabbinic writings frequently attest to the legality of polygamy. King Solomon is said to have had 700 wives and 300 concubines. Also, king David is said to have had many wives and concubines. The Old Testament does have some injunctions on how to distribute the property of a man among his sons from different wives. The only restriction on polygamy is a prohibit on taking a wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s sister as a rival wife. Jews continued to practice polygamy until the sixteenth century. Oriental Jews regularly practiced polygamy until they arrived in Israel where it is forbidden under civil law. The Quran, contrary to the Bible, limited the maximum number of wives to four under the strict condition of treating the wives equally and justly. It should not be understood that the Quran is exhorting the believers to practice polygamy, or that polygamy is considered as an ideal. In other words, the Quran has Ã¢â¬Å"toleratedÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"allowedÃ¢â¬ polygamy, and no more, but why? Why is polygamy permissible ? The answer is simple: there are places and times in which there are compelling social and moral reasons for polygamy. As Quranic verse indicates, the issue of polygamy in Islam cannot be understood apart from community obligations towards orphans and widows. Islam as a universal religion suitable for all places and all times could not ignore these compelling obligations. Eventhough that is what Quran said most men practices it due to their success demonstration in their economy and social, us we saw it in Xala movie El hajd didnÃ¢â¬â¢t marry his third wife because she was widow or orphan. In most human societies, females outnumber males. In the U. S. there are, at least, eight million more women than men. In a country like Guinea there are 122 females for every 100 males. In Tanzania, there are 95. 1 males per 100 females. What should a society do towards such unbalanced sex ratios? There are various solutions, some might suggest celibacy, others would prefer female infanticide (which does happen in some societies in the world today ! ). Others may think the only outlet is that the society should tolerate all manners of sexual permissiveness: prostitution, sex out of wedlock, homosexuality, etc. For other societies , like most African societies today, the most honorable outlet is to allow polygamous marriage as a culturally accepted and socially respected institution. The point that is often misunderstood in the West is that women in other cultures do not necessarily look at polygamy as a sign of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s degradation. For example, many young African brides , whether Christians or Muslims or otherwise, would prefer to marry a married man who has already proved himself to be a responsible husband. The problem of the unbalanced sex ratios becomes truly problematic at times of war. Native American Indian tribes used to suffer highly unbalanced sex ratios after wartime losses. Women in these tribes, who in fact enjoyed a fairly high status, accepted polygamy as the best protection against indulgence in indecent activities. European settlers, without offering any other alternative, condemned this Indian polygamy as Ã¢â¬ËuncivilisedÃ¢â¬â¢ After the second world war, there were 7,300,000 more women than men in Germany (3. 3 million of them were widows). There were 100 men aged 20 to 30 for every 167 women in that age group. Many of these women needed a man not only as a companion but also as a provider for the household in a time of unprecedented misery and hardship. The soldiers of the victorious Allied Armies exploited these womenÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability. Many young girls and widows had liaisons with members of the occupying forces. Many American and British soldiers paid for their pleasures in cigarettes, chocolate, and bread. Children were overjoyed at the gifts these strangers brought. A 10 year old boy on hearing of such gifts from other children wished from all his heart for an Ã¢â¬ËEnglishmanÃ¢â¬â¢ for his mother so that she need not go hungry any longer. We have to ask our own conscience at this point: What is more dignifying to a woman? An accepted and respected second wife as in the native IndiansÃ¢â¬â¢ approach, or a virtual prostitute as in the Ã¢â¬ËcivilisedÃ¢â¬â¢ Allies approach? It is interesting to note that in an international youth conference held in Munich in 1948 the problem of the highly unbalanced sex ratio in Germany was discussed. When it became clear that no solution could be agreed upon, some participants suggested polygamy. The initial reaction of the gathering was a mixture of shock and disgust. However, after a careful study of the proposal, the participants agreed that it was the only possible solution. Consequently, polygamy was included among the conference final recommendations. Polygamy and its impact on mental and emotional health of women and children Children develop self-esteem and a sense of well-being when they are raised in a nurturing and loving environment. If abandoned by either parent, children may feel unwanted or unloved. When attention and praise are withdrawn, or absent, children often respond by becoming anxious and depresses. we heard many real life story of abused women and children coming rom broken families. I was brought up in a society who are 60% practice polygamy and friend with who are abandoned women and children due to polygamy. Brought up with neglected wivesÃ¢â¬â¢ and children suffering from emotional abuse and misuse of polygamy, I concluded that Children in polygamous household can experience a greater risk of neglect from their parents when fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s love and support is absent, distorted, or divided unequally. Young children are directly affected by their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ emotions and in polygamous families their rate of depression and anxiety is positively correlated with their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of insecurity and depression. A high number of these children exhibit symptoms of severe depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, self destructive behavior with tendency towards violence. It is emotionally devastating for children when their mothers are abandoned in favor of new wivesÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, preferential treatment of children according to who is their mother causes a sense of lack of worth for children in polygamous households. Children of the first wife often feel abandoned and unwanted when the father neglects them and their mother, in favor of newer wives and their children. Domestic violence is a serious risk in these households as parents may attack one another or the children of less favored wives, or the children from one mother may attack the children from a different mother. Aside from the actual physical harm experienced by young victims of domestic violence, this abusive environment can seriously affect the victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ mental development and health. This in turn increases the chance that they become perpetrators of acts of violence. The health of the mother, mentally and physically, also has an effect on the development of the child, as early as in the womb. When a mother feels anxious, this anxiety is transmitted to the child and increases the childÃ¢â¬â¢s risk for mental illness. When mothers worry about the stability of the household, children become insecure. This may affect their performance in school or how they interact with family members and other children. In one case, three young sisters supported by Ensan charity center all quit school due to lack of motivation and severe depression. Economically, polygamy makes it even more difficult for a father to provide for all of his children because it becomes more likely that he will have many children. Even fathers who wish to be involved in the lives of all of their children find that they must spend most of their time away from their family in order to provide financial security for their children and wives. When fathers fail to do so, the consequences are dire. Children and mothers experience emotional and financial depravation. In an attempt to find a sense of self-worth, belonging or a father figure, these children are more vulnerable to following people who encourage them to engage in violent behavior. Those children who do not behave aggressively towards others may often turn to drugs or alcohol, experience mental and emotional difficulties, or they may exhibit some kind of behavioral problems. The difficulties of being a supportive, loving father are often noticed by the fathers themselves. One illustration of the difficulties may be found in the International Herald Tribune account of the life of Abdu Hemmed Bekit,, who lives in Qatar with his five wives, 65 children and 82 grandchildren. When interviewed about his large family he says that he regrets not having only one wife. In order to prevent wives from competing with one another, he was forced to build their homes far apart, which made it harder for him to spend time with all of his children. Bekit is so opposed to polygamy that he has forbidden his sons to take more than one wife and has taught all of his daughters to refuse to become second wives. His feelings come not out of shame, but a reality check. He now knows that his wives would become jealous of one another and pick on the weakest ones. On several occasions, he has come across children that he did not realize were his. Feeding, clothing and sheltering so many children have also been large financial challenges for Bekit. However, as a successful businessman of his village, Bekit has been able to provide for his family. But this is often not the case. It is quite common for fathers to abandon their families when they cannot provide for them. Frequently, the eldest sons will drop out of school in order to find jobs to support the family. This in turn makes it more unlikely that he will be able to support his own family when it is time for him to marry. These various difficulties illustrate that the practice of polygamy affects everyone in the family. Polygamy can endanger family, the pillar of the society in the most serious way. If the family structure collapses, the wreckage is felt by all. If a man takes more than one wife, he is commanded to treat them all equally. But, who ensures that all the wives and children are treated equally and justly? Are the men able to recognize their unjust behavior ever? Are those who misuse religion guide-line of polygamy ever able to recognize their unjust behavior? We covered the sad story in Her Three Days and Xala movie, where there any wife or children happy about the third or fourth marriage? WerenÃ¢â¬â¢t they very sad? A common theme throughout both Xala and Things Fall Apart is the practice of polygamy. Both texts, examine the effects of polygamous life for both the husband and wives. The ideas of masculinity and femininity within marriage and polygamous society are scrutinized within the novels, giving the reader a broader picture of the cultural dimensions of polygamy. The two texts, varying greatly in style and subject, highlight the differences of both rural vs. urban polygamy and traditional vs. modern polygamy. The marriages of Okonkwo in Things Fall Apart represent traditional, rural polygamy, which is an accepted social norm within Ibo society. OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s wives live together in what might be called a Ã¢â¬Å"sisterhoodÃ¢â¬ within the family farm. In contrast, El HadjiÃ¢â¬â¢s marriages in Xala represent modern, urban polygamy, a practice that is tied to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s religion (Islam) and economic success rather than the society as a whole. Despite the variances of polygamy within the novels, both highlight the effects on the perception of masculinity and femininity within polygamous relationships. Both novels highlight that the number of wives a polygamous man can acquire and support is a direct reflection on his masculinity. With these wives, he is expected to be a caretaker and provider, but constantly assert his dominance, as to not appear weak. Alternatively, the wives of polygamous marriages are encouraged to be passive and complacent, the picture of perfect feminine etiquette. They are supposed to show no jealousy or hatred towards their fellow wives, even as they compete for their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s affections. They are to know their status as objects of their husband. To prevent domestic abuse and social disintegrations, each member of the Society must have an interest for the welfare of women and children. The suffering of neglected wives and children should be everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s concern. If authorities do not concern themselves with the family welfare, the society becomes weaker, for the status of families has a profound impact on the strength or the weakness of society. Ultimately, when Women and children suffer, society suffers and pays the price as a whole. How to cite Polygamy and Children, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Short Story Discovery Essay It was a hot, dry day in the middle of a desert town in Iraq and Steve and his squad was on patrol through the town of Al Miqdadiyah, with his best mate Doug at his side he lead the patrol through the middle of town. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey did you hear that the enemy are making advancements towards us? Ã¢â¬ Doug asked nervously Ã¢â¬Å"I DonÃ¢â¬â¢t think this place will be safe for longÃ¢â¬ Steve chuckled Ã¢â¬Å"Relax its secure weÃ¢â¬â¢ll be fine, they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been spotted within 50 km of this placeÃ¢â¬ as almost as soon as the words left his mouth a bullet zipped past him and hit the Soldier behind him Ã¢â¬Å"OH S**T! , Duck in cover! they all dove for cover as bullets hailed down at them from the buildings ahead Ã¢â¬Å"did anyone count how many bogies!? Ã¢â¬ Steve screamed at his squad Ã¢â¬Å"No sir they pined us down to fastÃ¢â¬ a young private named Paul Ã¢â¬Å"ok. we need to get out of the kill zone, half of us give covering fire and the other spread out as far you canÃ¢â¬ They did as commanded and half of the patrol suppressed the enemy long enough for the rest to spread out and find cover inside adjacent buildings and behind broken walls or in ditches, Ã¢â¬Å"alright now the other give cove Ã¢â¬ Steve was cut off by Paul Ã¢â¬Å"RPG!! Steve turned to face the missile racing towards the cover they were in Ã¢â¬Å"RUN! Ã¢â¬ he screamed but it was too late the missile hit and exploded creating a cloud of debris and dust, Steve went to sit up and shootÃ¢â¬â¢s of pain coming from his gut and chest. he was hit by shrapnel and was bleeding out, he looked around to see his squad and saw that all the Soldiers in the radius of the blast were dead, including Doug his best mate since primary school, and Paul a 18 yr old boy who he p romised heÃ¢â¬â¢d make sure heÃ¢â¬â¢d be going home to his family at the end of this mission. As Steve lay dying with his squad and Best mate a memory entered his mind, the first day he and Doug talked about military service 5 yrs ago when they were both 17. Ã¢â¬Å"Dude The army is going to be so madÃ¢â¬ Doug cried out in joy as he and Steve were walking home one day Ã¢â¬Å"I know IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to be an officerÃ¢â¬ Steve replied, Ã¢â¬Å"and maybe IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be your COÃ¢â¬Å"he added mockingly Ã¢â¬Å"HA yeah I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t trust you to lead me across the road let alone through a battlefieldÃ¢â¬ Doug said with a laugh, then Steve spaced out and thought about that fact.. e was worried that he might not be a good CO and get his men killed, who all trusted him to lead them in and out of danger and through missions, and back home to their families but how could he know that he was going to make the right decision all the time, as this thought passed through his mind he Shuddered and shook off the worried thoughts about the great amount of responsibility heÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to face in the future, (he kept this worried thought with him for the rest of his life hich as you know is very short. ) he turned to face Doug and said Ã¢â¬Å"I promise to lead you to safety and victory on the battlefieldÃ¢â¬ jokingly then suddenly It all faded and a beeping was heard Steve had woken up in a hospital.
Friday, March 27, 2020
Anova Hypothesis Testing Paper Essay Example Anova Hypothesis Testing Paper Essay Anova Hypothesis Testing Paper Essay ANOVA Hypothesis Testing Paper RES/342 July 5, 2011 University of Phoenix ANOVA Hypothesis Testing Paper According to Payscale. com an individual with a high school education entering the work force will earn less than an individual with the same level of education who has worked longer in that particular field (Harrison, 2010). Team A has selected data from the Wages and Wage Earners data set and will be using the analysis of variance, also known as ANOVA, to compare the mean of age groups 18 63 which were broken down into four age groups to compare the average salary of each age group and will determine the accuracy of PayscaleÃ¢â¬â¢s claim. In this paper we discuss our research question and the hypothesis and show how we concluded the selected hypothesis. Research Question and Hypothesis Statement Is there a difference in earned wages for workers with a 12th grade education based on the age of the worker? At a five percent level of significance (? ), the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s null hypothesis (H0) is that the mean scores are the same for the four groups 18-25, 26-33, 36-44, and 46-53. The alternate hypothesis (H1) is that at least one mean is different. These hypotheses are simply illustrated as: H0: ? roup 1 = ? group 2 = ? group 3 = ? group 4, H1: At least one mean is different. Five Steps Hypothesis Testing and Results of F Test Team A conducted the following steps to test their hypothesis. Step 1 Ã¢â¬â The null and alternate hypotheses: H0: ? group 1 = ? group 2 = ? group 3 = ? group 4 H1: At least one mean is different Step 2 Ã¢â¬â Select the level of significance: ? = . 05 Step 3 Ã¢â¬âIdentify test statistic: Use the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ distribution because this is an ANOVA test Step 4 Ã¢â¬â Formulate the decision rule Reject the null hypothesis if F-calculated is greater than 2. 85 (F-critical) Step # 5 Ã¢â¬â Calculate the test statistic, arrive at a decision, and state a conclusion: Degrees of freedom in the numerator: df= c-1= 4-1= 3 Degrees of freedom in the denominator: df = n-c = 43-4 = 39 Decision is to retain the null hypothesis. Conclusion is that a difference cannot be proven between wages of workers with a 12th grade education based upon age. p-value = 0. 086 Excel Output: Anova: Single Factor | | | | | | |SUMMARY | | | | | | | |Groups |Count |Sum |Average |Variance | | | |Group 1 |9 |165739 |18415. 44 |75696297 | | | |Group 2 |15 |349791 |23319. |75244077 | | | |Group 3 |9 |249868 |27763. 11 |1. 03E+08 | | | |Group 4 |10 |306802 |30680. 2 |2. 28E+08 | | | |ANOVA | | | | | | | |Source of Variation |SS |df |MS |F |P-value |F critical | |Between Groups |8. 4E+08 |3 |2. 75E+08 |2. 358418 |0. 086439 |2. 845068 | |Within Groups |4. 54E+09 |39 |1. 16E+08 | | | | |Total |5. 36E+09 |42 |Ã |Ã |Ã |Ã | | | | | | | | | Raw Data and Charts Wages and Wage Earners 2005 Data Set Yearly |Group 1 |Group 2 |Group 3 |Group 4 | |Wages | | | | | | |$11,186. 00 |$11,451. 00 |$18,121. 00 |$9,879. 00 | | |$20,852. 00 |$29,191. 00 |$26,614. 00 |$49,898. 0 | | |$14,476. 00 |$41,780. 00 |$33,411. 00 |$20,852. 00 | | |$16,667. 00 |$13,312. 00 |$22,485. 00 |$32,235. 00 | | |$15,234. 00 |$15,957. 00 |$21,994. 00 |$50,171. 00 | | |$39,888. 00 |$25,166. 00 |$28,440. 0 |$31,702. 00 | | |$13,162. 00 |$30,308. 00 |$50,187. 00 |$36,178. 00 | | |$20,793. 00 |$21,716. 00 |$31,799. 00 |$12,285. 00 | | |$13,481. 00 |$28,219. 00 |$16,817. 00 |$45,976. 00 | | | |$31,691. 0 | |$17,626. 00 | | | |$17,690. 00 | | | | | |$16,796. 00 | | | | | |$32,094. 00 | | | | | |$15,193. 0 | | | | | |$19,227. 00 | | | References Harrison, H. (2010). The Average Salary of High School Graduates. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from ehow. com/facts_5232664_average-salary-high-school-graduates. html [pic] Reject H0 Do not reject H0 Ã ± =. 05 F = 2. 85 H0 ? =. 05 F = 2. 85
Friday, March 6, 2020
Audrey Flack Audrey Flack is often referred to as one of the leading artists of Photorealism. In the 1960s, Audrey Flack began her career in the realm of Photorealistic art even though her earlier training was in abstract expressionism. She interpreted the photographs but reworked them into more expressive representations. Audrey Flack was born in New York City in 1931. She knew she wanted to be an artist even as a child. Despite her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of enthusiasm she pursued her art career. Ã¢â¬Å"Flack attended the High School of Music and Art, where she won the St. Gaudens medalÃ¢â¬ (Sheldon 1.) Ã¢â¬Å"Following graduation from Cooper unions she where she was a top student, she was recruited by Josef Albers to participate in the fine arts program at YaleÃ¢â¬ (Sheldon 1). Josef Albers is a renowned color abstractionist. This didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop her from painting realistic things and she returned to figurative painting as early as 1952. Flack graduated from Yale UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Art and Architecture in 1952 with a B.F.A. Flack also received her doctorate in 1977 from Cooper Union. After Cooper Union, Flack moved back to New York to study anatomy at the Art Students League. This gave her a chance to respond to her desire to paint realistically. This technique was ignored in her previous art education. Ã¢â¬Å"Flack writes: Ã¢â¬ËI always wanted to draw realistically. For me art is a continuous discovery into reality, an exploration of visual data which has been going on for centuries, each artist contributing to the next generationÃ¢â¬â¢s advancement. I wanted to go a step further and extend the boundaries. I also believe people have a deep need to understand their world and that art clarifies reality for themÃ¢â¬ (Sheldon 1.) Flack has long since moved beyond the strict regulations of what photore... Free Essays on Audrey Flack Free Essays on Audrey Flack Audrey Flack Audrey Flack is often referred to as one of the leading artists of Photorealism. In the 1960s, Audrey Flack began her career in the realm of Photorealistic art even though her earlier training was in abstract expressionism. She interpreted the photographs but reworked them into more expressive representations. Audrey Flack was born in New York City in 1931. She knew she wanted to be an artist even as a child. Despite her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of enthusiasm she pursued her art career. Ã¢â¬Å"Flack attended the High School of Music and Art, where she won the St. Gaudens medalÃ¢â¬ (Sheldon 1.) Ã¢â¬Å"Following graduation from Cooper unions she where she was a top student, she was recruited by Josef Albers to participate in the fine arts program at YaleÃ¢â¬ (Sheldon 1). Josef Albers is a renowned color abstractionist. This didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop her from painting realistic things and she returned to figurative painting as early as 1952. Flack graduated from Yale UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Art and Architecture in 1952 with a B.F.A. Flack also received her doctorate in 1977 from Cooper Union. After Cooper Union, Flack moved back to New York to study anatomy at the Art Students League. This gave her a chance to respond to her desire to paint realistically. This technique was ignored in her previous art education. Ã¢â¬Å"Flack writes: Ã¢â¬ËI always wanted to draw realistically. For me art is a continuous discovery into reality, an exploration of visual data which has been going on for centuries, each artist contributing to the next generationÃ¢â¬â¢s advancement. I wanted to go a step further and extend the boundaries. I also believe people have a deep need to understand their world and that art clarifies reality for themÃ¢â¬ (Sheldon 1.) Flack has long since moved beyond the strict regulations of what photore...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Abortion and Virtue - Essay Example The main argument is based on the moral characteristics of those who engage in it. However, the paper claims that individuals have a certain character just because they have indulged in various actions; character hinges on the reasons provided for the said choice. The paper orients itself from the viewpoint of the experience of the moral agent. Abortion and Virtue According to Stewart (2009), ethics of virtue or ethics of character holistically informs the rightness or wrongness of the acts that a moral agent undertakes. It gives insights on what to do when confronted by various moral situations. This approach holds that the moral characteristics of a person are formed and trained by the actions that the person engages in or practices. Virtues define the moral character of persons and their actions such as abortion have a bearing on the character of the agent. Ethics of virtue guides an individual in determining the morality of various actions that confront the individual. The approa ch proposes living humanly flourishing lives grounded on virtues. As La Follette (2002) notes, individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ views on abortion differ sharply owing to a host of varying reasons. For instance, prochoice proponents argue that abortion gives the mother a chance reign on her life hence respecting her rights. Nevertheless, many view it as wrong simply because it contradicts their religious views. As illustrated, the debate on abortion is not clear cut as there are those who think that it is utterly wrong. This is irrespective of those who argue that it is a moral choice inspired by warranting circumstances (Harman, 1999). In this debate, virtue theorists dwell on whether abortion is a virtuous action or not, by basing their arguments on whether it can be carried out virtuously (such as with compassion). Similarly, they probe if it promotes eudemonia (happiness). Regardless of the antagonism within the debate, the justification of abortion must be grounded on suitable reasons that a vail the best options to both the mother and the unborn. The take of virtue ethics on abortion puts into account the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s character, emotional attachment to the child, desires, thoughts, and the social relationships of all parties. The approach offers flexibility by avoiding being immersed in extremes (Stephen, 2011). The abortion decision and experience can be viewed as both morally permissible as well as morally repugnant; abortion is both a moral action and an immoral one. This issue is controversial to the extent that disagreement on the same is obvious. This in turn, infiltrates bias based on the perspectives that one takes on abortion. Harris & Mills (1985) asserts that the moral character and reasoning that informs abortion decision differs from one person to another. The motive or intention determines the moral status of the act and hence should be solely in pursuit of a real good for many rather than an individualized good. Abortion conflicts with moral virtues t hat many people admire and live for. To a large extent, the reasons that many women give in defence of abortion are not morally acceptable. The choice of abortion is often not estimable because the subjects are not the only ones who suffer but also others who are party to the decision. In most scenarios, abortion thrives in poor relationships and hence unfavourable for raising a child. Thus, the relationships are not designed to be receptive to all responsibilities arising from the union. This in some part hints at irresponsibility and dishonesty on the part of the agents. In other instances, women who have had abortion impose rather than engage their spouses in the decision making process. In some cases, the women who undergo the procedure